صفات رویشی و ترکیب‏های اسانس Chaerophyllum macropodum Boiss در رویشگاه‏های مختلف

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار، گروه منابع طبیعی و محیط زیست، دانشگاه پیام نور، تهران، ایران

2 گروه زیست شناسی، دانشکده علوم پایه، دانشگاه پیام نور، تهران، ایران

3 دانشیار، موسسه تحقیقات جنگلها و مراتع کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

4 استاد، گروه زیستشناسی، دانشکده علوم پایه، دانشگاه پیام نور، تهران، ایران

چکیده

Chaerophyllum macropodom از تیره Apiaceae دارای خواص آنتی‏اکسیدانی و آنتی‏باکتریایی است. صفات رویشی این گونه در 48 پلات استقرار یافته در چهار رویشگاه استان‏های تهران و البرز ثبت گردید. اندام‏های هوایی این گیاه در مرحله گل‏دهی جمع‏آوری گردید و پس از خشک‏نمودن آن‏ها در سایه به مدت دو هفته، به روش تقطیر با آب در دستگاه کلونجر اسانس‏گیری شد. اسانس حاصل با استفاده از دستگاه‏های GC و GC/MS تجزیه و شناسایی گردید. سه نمونه خاک از هر رویشگاه برداشت شد و بعضی از خصوصیات فیزیکی و شیمیایی مورد اندازه‏گیری قرار گرفت. نتایج تجزیه واریانس نشان داد که بین چهار رویشگاه از نظر صفات رویشی، خصوصیات خاک و ترکیب‏های اسانس مشترک اختلاف معنی‏داری وجود دارد. ترکیب‏های ترانس- بتا - اوسیمن، سیس- بتا - اوسیمن، فنچیل استات، آلفا - پینن، میرسن، گاما - ترپینن و بتا - پینن ترکیب‏های اصلی اسانس در هر چهار رویشگاه بودند. به منظور تعیین مهم‏ترین عوامل در تمایز رویشگاه‏ها از روش PCA استفاده شد. نتایج نشان داد که در تمایز رویشگاه‏ها خصوصیات زیر بیشترین تأثیر را دارند. رویشگاه مبارک‏آباد: تعداد بوته، آلفا - پینن، فنچیل استات، آهک، رس و اسیدیته؛ رویشگاه چنار شرق: ترپینولون، میرسن، میانگین حداکثر دمای گرمترین ماه، ماده آلی و رطوبت اشباع؛ رویشگاه گاجره: گاما - ترپینن، پارا - سیمن، سیس- بتا - اوسیمن، ترانس- بتا - اوسیمن، حداکثر مطلق دما و ماسه؛ رویشگاه سیجان: بتا - پینن، حداقل مطلق دما، دمای سالانه و میانگین حداقل دمای سردترین ماه.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Vegetative characteristics and essential oil of Chaerophyllum macropodum Boiss. in different habitats, Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mina Rabie 1
  • Najmeh Sadat Tabatabaei Ghomi 2
  • Younes Asri 3
  • Gholamreza Bakhshi Khaniki 4

1 Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Engineering, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran

3 Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization )AREEO), Tehran, Iran

4 professor,Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

Chaerophyllum macropodum belongs to Apiaceae family has antioxidant and anti-bacterial properties. Vegetative characteristics of the species on 48 plots located in four sites of Tehran and Alborz provinces were recorded. The aerial parts of Ch. macropodum were collected at the flowering stage from the sites and air-dried at room temperature for two weeks then subjected to hydrodistillation, using a Clevenger-type apparatus. The analysis of the essential oils was performed by using GC and GC/MS. Three soil samples were taken from each site and some physical and chemical characteristics were measured. Analysis variance results of data showed that there is a significant difference among the four sites from the viewpoint of growth characteristics, soil features and common components of essential oils. The major compounds of essences of the species in four sites were trans-β-ocimene, cis-β-ocimene, fenchyl acetate, α-pinene, myrcene, γ-terpinene and β-pinene. In order to determine the most important differentiating factors in sites PCA method was used. The results showed the following characteristics are the most effective in differentiating of the sites. Mobarakabad site: density, α-pinene, fenchyl acetate, TNV and pH; Chenar-e Shargh site: terpinolene, myrcene, the mean maximum temperature of the warmest month, OC and SP; Gajereh site: γ-terpinene, p-cymene, trans-β-ocimene, cis-β-ocimene, absolute maximum temperature and sand; Sijan site: β-pinene, absolute minimum temperature, annual temperature and the mean minimum temperature of the coldest month.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Apiaceae
  • Medicinal plants
  • Coverage
  • trans-β-Ocimene
  • cis-β-Ocimene
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