تغییرات جوامع فیتوپلانکتونی در ارتباط با کیفیت آب در سواحل جنوب غربی دریای خزر(استان گیلان)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناسی ارشد/دانشگاه گیلان

2 دانشیار/انیستیتو بین المللی ماهیان خاویاری رشت

3 دانشیار/دانشگاه گیلان

چکیده

ساختار جمعیت فیتوپلانکتون‌ها در نواحی ساحلی نتیجه عوامل محیطی مثل مواد غذایی، نور، چرا، دما وشوری است. دریای خزر در منطقه معتدله واقع شده است و تحت تاثیر آب‌هایی است که به آن وارد می‌شوند. شش ایستگاه در امتداد ساحل دریای خزر در استان گیلان از لحاظ وجود فعالیت‌های مختلف انسانی انتخاب شد. نمونه‌برداری به صورت ماهانه در دو فصل تابستان و پاییز 1391 انجام شد. در هر ایستگاه از فیتوپلانکتون‌ها به دو صورت کمی و کیفی نمونه تهیه شد و غلظت نیترات، فسفات و سیلیکات در هر بار نمونه‌برداری در آزمایشگاه اندازه‌گیری شد. میانگین غلظت نیترات، فسفات و سیلیکات به ترتیب 38/0±57/0، 03/0±11/0 و 3/0±87/0 میلی‌گرم در لیتر بود. غلظت نیترات و فسفات اختلاف معنی‌داری در بین ایستگاه‌ها نشان نداد، ولی در غلظت سیلیکات اختلاف معنی‌دار مشاهده شد.دیاتومه‌ها، هم از لحاظ ترکیب گونه‌ای و هم فراوانی، گروه غالب بودند و بعد از آن، سیانوفیت‌، پیروفیت، کلروفیت، اوگلنوفیت و کریسوفیت قرار داشتند. تراکم فیتوپلانکتون‌ در مدت مطالعه103× 103± 105×2 سلول در ‌لیتر محاسبه شد. شاخص شانون با میانگین کل 77/0±00/2 اختلاف معنی‌داری بین ایستگاه‌ دهکده ساحلی با ایستگاه‌های چابکسر و تالش نشان داد. در بین ایستگاه‌ها، از نظر تراکم فیتوپلانکتون‌ها اختلاف معنی‌دار مشاهده نشد. ساختار جمعیت فیتوپلانکتونی در منطقه مورد مطالعه، نسبت به مطالعات پیشین، تغییرات زیادی نشان داد. متغیرهای شیمیایی و زیستی در بینایستگاه‌های مختلف تقریباً متفاوت بودند و تحت تاثیر فعالیت‌های جامعه ساحلی قرار داشتند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Variations of phytoplankton community structure related to water quality in the south-western coasts of the Caspian Sea (Guilan province- Iran)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fateme Jafarari 1
  • Zohreh Ramezan pouur 2
  • Masoud Sattari 3

1 MSc / Guilan University

2 Associate Professor / International Institute of Sturgeon Fish of Rasht

3 Associate professor / University of Guilan

چکیده [English]

Phytoplankton community structure in coastal areas is a result of various environmental factors such as nutrients, light, grazing, temperature, and salinity. The Caspian Sea is located in temperate region and strongly influenced by water discharge into it. Six stations were selected to study anthropogenic effects on the phytoplankton community structure along the southwestern Caspian Sea coasts from Chaboksar through Talesh. Sampling was performed monthly in summer and autumn. Phytoplankton samples were taken quantitatively and qualitatively in each station. Concentrations of nitrate, phosphate and silicate were measured in the laboratory using spectrophotometer the average concentration of nitrate, phosphate and silicate were 0.57±0.38, 0.11±0.03 and 0.87±0.30 mg/l respectively. The concentration of nitrate and phosphate showed no significant difference among the stations, while silicate showed significant differences. Diatoms were the dominant group both in species composition and abundance followed by Cyanophytes, Dianoflagellates, Chlorophytes, Euglenoids and Chrysophytes respectively. Phytoplankton density was calculated 231± 103cell/ml during the study. The average Shannon index was 2.00±0.77 and revealed significant difference between stations. The average phytoplankton density was 245±39 cell/ml in stations, but no significant differences were found between stations. Variations in chemical and biological (diversity and density) variables were almost different between stations and could be influenced by coastal communities.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Caspian Sea
  • Phytopelankton
  • environmental factor
  • chemical variables
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