نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

دانشیار پژوهشکده میوه های معتدله وسردسیری،موسسه تحقیقات باغبانی کشور، سازمان تحقیقات آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی

چکیده

این تحقیق طی سال‌های 1390 و 1391 در موسسه تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر کرج با هدف ارزیابی اثر نوع دانه گرده دهنده بر میزان میزان قند، پروتئین، اسید های چرب و اسید های آمینه در بذور حاصل از دورگ گیری بادام A200با شاهرود 12، A230 و تونو در مراحل قبل و بعد از جوانه زنی براساس آزمایش طرح بلوک های تصادفی با 3 تکرار انجام شد.. نتایج نشان داد که در اثر گرده ی رقم "آ230"قبل از جوانه زنی بذر هیبرید "آ200" دارای مقدار قند کل 77 /29میلی گرم بر گرم ماده ی خشک می باشد.این در حالی است که کمترین مقدار قند در اثر گرده ی "تونو" بعد از جوانه زنی بذر بوده است. بیشترین مقدار پروتین دراثر گرده زای"آ230"بوده است و در مقابل کمترین آن از آن "تونو" بعد از جوانه زنی است. میزان متیل اولئات در اثر گرده "آ230" با کمترین مقدار یعنی (74/74%) قبل از جوانه زنی بذر و دراثر گرده رقم "تونو" بیشترین مقدار (79/71%) بعد از جوانه زنی را دارا بود. همچنین بین گرده زاها از نظر اثر گرده بر میزان اسید های آمینه در قبل و بعد از جوانه زنی تفاوت معنی داری مشاهده شد. به طوری که بیشترین مقدار اسید آمینه آسپاراتیک اسید مربوط به رقم "شاهرود 12"قبل از جوانه زنی (570/0%) و کمترین مقدار مربوط به تاثیر گرده رقم "شاهرود 12" بعد از جوانه زنی (136/0%) بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of pollen source on of amino acid, soluble sugar, protein and fatty acids in seeds from A-200 cultivar (♀) ☓A-230, Shahrood 12 and Tuono (♁)

نویسنده [English]

  • Ali Imani

چکیده [English]

This study was carried out during 2011 and 2012 on randomized complete bloke design (RCBD) in triplicate with the aim to assess the effect of pollen of A230, Shahrood12 and Tuono on seed germination rate and some of the changes the inner material of seed of A-200 cultivar (mother parent) such as the amino acid, protein, soluble sugar and fatty acids in Steps of before and after germination. The overall results of this study showed that the effect of pollen of A230, Shahrood12 and Tuono on inner material of seeds of A-200 cultivar was significant. The maximum amount of soluble sugars in seed of A-200 from the hybridizing of A230 before germination (29.77%) was observed while the minimum amount of soluble sugars in seed of A-200 from the hybridizing of Shahrood 12 after germination (14.94%) was obtained. Also the maximum amount of total protein in the seeds of A-200 from crossing with of A-230 was observed while the minimum amount of total protein in seed of A-200 from the hybridizing of touno after germination was obtained. Check the resulting of fatty acids levels in seed of A-200 from the hybridizing of A-230, Shahrood 12 and Touno, showed that showed that the effect of pollinizers on fatty acids of seeds of A-200 cultivar was significant. So that, the most and lowest of the fatty acids (methyl oliat) with 74.74% and 71.79% correspond to Touno and A-230respectively. As well as, in this study, it was found that the effect of pollen on the amount of amino acids in seed of A200 from the hybridizing of A-230, Shahrood 12 and Touno, the before and after germination was significant difference. So that, the most and lowest of the Aspartic acid with 0.570% (before germination) and 0.136% (after germination) was correspond to Shahrood 12 and Shahrood 12 respectively.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • germination
  • almond
  • amino acids
  • inner material of seed

Abdallah, A., Ahumada, M.H. and Gradziel, T.M. (1998). Oil content and fatty
acid composition of almond kernels from different genotypes and California production regions. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural
Science. 123:1029–1033.
Askin, Balta, M.A., Tekintas
-M.F., Kazankaya, F.E. and Balta, F. (2007). Fatty acid composition affected by kernel weight in almond [Prunus dulcis
(Mill.) D.A. Webb.] genetic resources. Journal of food composition and
analysis. 20, 7–12.
Benech-Arnold, R. L., Sanchez, R. A. Forcella, F. Kruk, B. C. and Ghersa, M.
C. (2000). Environmental control of dormancy in weed seed banks in soil.
Field Crops Research.67:105-122.
Bewley, J.D. and Black, M. (1994). Seeds. Physiology of Development and Germination. Second Edition. New York, Plenum Press.677pp
Bradford, M. M. (1976). A rapid sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding.
Analytical Biochemistry. 72: 248-254.
Callis, J. (1995). Regulation of protein degradation. Plant Cell. 7, 845-857.
Dahmer M.L., Hilderbrand D.F.and Collins, G.B. (1992). Comparative protein
accumulation patterns in soybean somatic and zygotic embryos. In Vitro
Cellular and Developmental Biology Plant. 28:106-114.
Dong-dong, C., Jin, H., Xin-xian, H., Xian-ju, W., Ya-jing, G and Zhou-fei ,W.
(2008). Relationships between changes of kernel nutritive components and
seed vigor during development stages of F1 seeds of sh2 sweet corn. Journal of Zhejiang University Science 9(12): 964-968
Duggin, J.L., Grant, C.D., and Loneragan, W.A. (2003). Germination and early
survival of
Eucalyptus blakelyi in grasslands of the New England Tablelands, NSW, Australia. Forest Ecology and Management, 173: 319 334.
Farooq, M., Barsa, S.M.A., and Wahid, A. (2006). Priming of feld-sown rice

seed enhances germination, seedling establishment, allometry and yield.
Plant Growth Regulation. 49: 285-294.
Fatima, A., AL-Asbahi, A., Alhammadi, AA and Abdullah, Q.A. (2012). The effects of free amino acids profles on seeds germination/dormancy and seedlings development of two genetically different cultivars of Yemeni Pomegranate. Journal of Stress Physiology & Biochemistry. 8 (1): 114-137.
Garcia-Gusano, M., Martı´nez-Go´mez, P.and Dicenta, F. (2004). Breaking seed
dormancy in almond (
Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb). Scientia Horticulturae. 99 :363–370.
Hartmann H.T., Kester, D.E., Davies F. Jr.and Geneve, R.L. (1997). Plant Propagation Principles and Practices. Sixth Edition. New Jersey, Prentice Hall.
Hemalatha, H and Prasad, S. (2003). Change in the metabolism of protein in
during germination
Sesamum indicum seeds. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 58: 1-10.
Hoppe A. and Theimer, R.R. (1997). Degradation of oil bodies isolated from cotyledons during germination of rapeseed seedlings. Journal of Plant Physiology 151: 471-478.
Hyson, D.A., Schneeman, B.O. and Davis, P.A. (2002). Almonds and almond
oil have similar effects on plasma lipids and LDL oxidation in healthy men
and women. Journal of Nutrition. 132:703–707.
Irigoyen, J. J., Emerich, D. W. and Sanchez-Diaz, M. (1992). Alfalfa leaf senescence include by drought stress: photosynthesis, hydrogen peroxide metabolism, lipid peroxidation and ethylene evolution. Physiological. Physiologia
Plantarum . 84: 67-72.
Kamymak, H. (2012). The relationships between seed fatty acids profle and seed
germination in cucurbit species. Žem - Vikipeedia. Žemdirbystė. 99(3):
299–304.
Kodad, O., Socias i Company, R., Gracia Gómez, M.S., Martínez Lázaro, J.M.
and Bonilla, A. (2004). La composición de la almendra como criterio para
su utilización industrial y como base para la selección en un programa de


mejora genética, pp. 1094–1102. Actas III Congreso Español de Ingeniería.
Kodad ,O. and Socias i Company, R. (2008).Variability of oil content and of major
fatty acid composition in almond (Prunus amygdalus Batsch.) and its relationship with kernel quality composition . Scientia Horticulturae. 90: 249-256.
Kodad, O., Estopa,G., Juans, T., Mamouni, A. and Socias i Company, R. (2011).
Tocopherol Concentration in Almond Oil: Genetic Variation and Environmental Effects under Warm Conditions. The Journal of Agricultural and
Food Chemistry.9:234-239.
Massao M.S. and Mazzafera P. (2000).Compositional changes of proteins and
amino acids in germinating coffee seeds. The Brazilian Journal of Science
and Technology. 13: 125-131.
Martinez-Gomez, P .and Dicenta, F. (2001). Mechanisms of dormancy in seeds
of peach (
Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) cv. GF305. Science Horticulturae.
91: 51–58.
Martin-Carratalá, M.L., García-López, Berenguer-Navarro, C. V. and Grané-Teruel ,N. (1998). New contribution to the chemometric characterization of
almond cultivars on the basis of their fatty acid profles. The Journal of
Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 46: 963–967.
Powell, L.E. (1987). Hormonal aspects of bud and seed dormancy in temperate-zone woody plants. Science Horticulturae. 22: 845–850.
Ozcan M.M., Unvera, A., Erkanb, E. and Arslana, D. (2011) Characterization of
some almond kernel and oils. Food Chemistry. 127: 330-333.
Rawat J.M.S, Tomar Y.K and Rawat, V. (2010). Effect of stratifcation on seed
germination and seedling performance of wild pomegranate. Journal of
American Science 6: 97-99.
Ramos Carmona, B. (1983). Variedades de almendro. Cuaderno INIA 14.
Ravi Kiran, C,. Rao, D.B, Sirisha, N. and Raghava Rao, T. (2012). Impact of
Germination on Biochemical and Antioxidant Enzymes of
Ceiba pentand�
ra
(Kapok) Seeds. Science Research.3 (9): 414-419.
Ren, Y., Waldron,K.W., Pacy,J.F. and Ellis, P.R. (2001). Chemical and histo-

chemical characterization of cell wall polysaccharides in almond seeds in
relation to lipid bioavailability, pp. 448–452. In W. Pfannhauser, G.R. Fenwick, and S Khokhar (eds.), Biologically active phytochemicals in food.
Royal Soc. Chemistry, Cambridge, UK.
Offem, J., Egebe, E and Onen, E. (2006). Changes in lipid content and composition during germination of groundnuts. Journal of the Science of Food and
Agriculture 62(2): 147–155.
Ortega E., Martinez-Garcia P.J.and Dicenta F. E. (2006). Influence of self-pollination in fruit quality of autogamous almonds. Scientia Horticulturae 109:
293–296.
Saura-Calixto, F., Canellas, J. and Raso-Garcia, A. (1984). Gas chromato- graphic
analysis for sugars and sugar-alcohols in the mesocarp, endocarp and kernel
of almond fruit. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 32:1018–1020
Schirra, M. (1997). Postharvest technology and utilization of almonds. Hort.
Rev. 20:267– 292.
Socias i Company, R., Kodad, O., Alonso, J.M. and Gradziel T.M. (2008). Almond quality: a breeding perspective. Horticultural Reviews 34:197–238.
Socias i Company R., Kodad O., Alonso J.M. and Font-Forcada, C. (2010). Fruit
quality in almond: Chemical aspects for breeding strategies Options Méditerranéennes. 94: 2010 — XIV GREMPA Meeting on Pistachios and Almonds.
Tonguc, M., Elkoyunu, R., Erbas, S and Karakurt, k. (2012). Changes in seed
reserve composition during germination and initial seedling development
of saffl ower (
Carthamus tinctorius L.). Turkish Journal of Biology 36:
107-112.
Zacheo,G., Cappello,M.S., Gallo, A., Santino,A. and Cappello. A R. (2000).
Changes associated with postharvest ageing in almond seeds. Lebensm.
LWT—Food Science and Technology 33:415–423.