نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد گروه بیمار یشناسی گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، واحد ورامین-پیشوا، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، ورامین، تهران، ایران

2 دانشیار بیماری‌شناسی گیاهی، دانشکـده کشـاورزی، واحد ورامین-پیشـوا، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، ورامین، تهران، ایران

3 دانشیار گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه اردکان، اردکان، ایران

4 دکتری بیماری شناسی گیاهی

10.22051/jab.2021.29444.1341

چکیده

پسته یکی از مهم‌ترین اقلام صادراتی ایران است. یکی از بیماری‌هایی که در بیشتر مناطق پسته کاری به درخت پسته خسارت وارد می‌کند بیماری گموز با عامل Phytophthora drescleri است. قارچ‌های مایکوریزا از جمله میکروارگانیسم‌های موفق در زمینه کنترل بیولوژیک و از عوامل تأثیرگذار بر کاهش شدت بروز بیماری های پوسیدگی ریشه هستند. عناصر غذایی قادر به افزایش سطح تحمل یا مقاومت گیاهان به بعضی بیماری‌ها نیز هستند. در این پژوهش با استفاده از قارچ‌های مایکوریزا و عناصر غذایی مختلف به مبارزه با بیماری گموز پرداخته شد. در این مطالعه ابتدا ترکیبات سولفات آمونیوم، سولفات پتاسیم و سوپرفسفات تریپل علیه این بیماری به کار گرفته شد. نتایج نشان داد که بیشترین میزان کاهش رشد قارچ بیمارگر مربوط به غلظت 2500 پی‌پی‌ام ترکیب سولفات آمونیوم با میزان 16/67 درصد نسبت به شاهد بود. در بخش دوم این مطالعه تأثیر تیمارهای مختلف شامل استفاده از قارچ مایکوریزا و سولفات آمونیوم هر کدام به تنهایی و همچنین ترکیب این دو در کاهش بیماری ناشی از بیمارگر P. drescleri بر روی صفاتی مانند وزن تر و خشک ریشه و اندام‌های هوایی و همچنین میزان عناصر فسفر، نیتروژن و پتاسیم مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. در نهایت میزان بیان دو ژن پراکسیداز و کاتالاز در این مطالعه ارزیابی شد. نتایج نشان داد زمانی‌که از تیمار قارچ مایکوریزا و سولفات آمونیوم به صورت همزمان استفاده شد، بیشترین وزن خشک و تر اندام هوایی و ریشه، در مورد هر دو رقم سرخس و بادامی زرند در عدم حضور بیمارگر، مشاهده شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Mycorrhiza and Nutrients on Some Pistachio Seed characters in Interaction with Phytophtora drescleri

نویسندگان [English]

  • elham babzan 1
  • maleki mojdeh 2
  • jalal Gholamnezhad 3
  • Fatemeh Naserinasab 4

1 M.Sc. Plant Pathology, Department of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, Varamin-Pishva Branch, Islamic Azad University, Varamin, Tehran, Iran

2 Associate Professor Department of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, Varamin-Pishva Branch, Islamic Azad University, Varamin, Tehran, Iran

3 Associate ProfessorDepartment of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Ardakan University, Ardakan, Iran

4 Phd of Plant pathology

چکیده [English]

Pistachio is one of the most important export crops of Iran. One of the diseases that damages pistachio trees in most pistachio growing areas is Gumosis disease caused by Phytophthora drescleri. Mycorrhizal fungi are the most successful microorganisms in the field of biological control and one of the effective agents to reduce the root rot diseases incidence caused by P. drescleri. Nutrients are also able to increase the level of tolerance or resistance of plants against to some diseases. In this study, mycorrhizal fungi and various nutrients were used to control the root rot disease. In this study, ammonium sulfate, potassium sulfate and triple superphosphate compounds were used against the root rot disease in vitro. The results showed that the highest amount of growth inhibition of pathogen was related to 2500 ppm concentration of ammonium sulfate with 67.16%. In the second section of the study, the effect of different treatments including mycorrhiza and ammonium sulfate alone and their combination in the reducing P. drescleri disease on characters such as fresh and dry root and shoots and shoots. The levels of phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium were evaluated. Finally, the expression levels of the two peroxidase and catalase genes was measured. The results showed that the combination of fungal mycorrhiza and ammonium sulfate always had the highest dry and fresh weight of shoots and roots among the treatments applied in both cultivars in the absence of pathogen.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Gummosis
  • Mycorrhiza
  • Nutrients
  • Gene Expression
Agrios, G.N. (2005). Plant Pathology. 5th ed. Academic Perss, San Diego, USA. 948pp.
Bagheri, V., Shamshiri, M.H., Shirani, H., Roosta, H. (2012). Nutrient uptake and distribution in mycorrhizal
pistachio seedlings under drought stress. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 14 (Suppl.), 1591–
1604.
Banihashemi, Z. (1975) Phytophthora black stem rot of sunflower. Plant Disease, 59: 721-724.
Banihashemi, Z. (1984) Phytophthora diseases of pistachio in southern Iran. PhytophthoraNewsletter, 12(3).
Chapman, H.D. and Pratt, P.F. (1961) Methods of analysis for soils, plants and water. University of California,
Berkely, CA, USA.
Chaves, M.M. and Oliveira, M.M. (2004) Mechanisms underlying plant resilience to water deficits: prospects for
water – saving agriculture. Journal of Experimental Botany, 55(407):2365 – 2384.
Cherif, M., Menzies, J. G., Benhamou N. and Bélanger, R.R. (1992) Studies of silicon distribution in wounded
and Pythium ultimuminfected cucumber plants. Physiol. Mol. Plant Pathol.41: 371-385.
De Gara, L., de Pinto, M. C. and Tommasi, F. (2003) The antioxidant systems vis-a-vis reactive oxygen species
during plant–pathogen interaction. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 41: 863–870.
Dordas, C. (2008) Role of nutrients in controlling plant diseases. Review Sustainable Agriculture. 28: 33-46.
Dumas-Gaudot, E., SLezack, S., Dassi, B., Pozo, M.J., GIianna, V. and Gianinazzi, S. (1996) Plant hydrolytic
enzymes (chitinases and β-1,3 glucanases) in root reactions to pathogenic and symbiotic microorganisms. Plant
and Soil 185: 211-221.
Ercolin, F. and D. Reinhardt. (2011) Successful joint ventures of plant: Arbuscular mycorrhiza and beyond. Trends
Plant Sci. 16: 356-362.
Fani, S.R., Mirabolfathy, M. and Zamanizadeh H.R. (2015) Identification of Pistachio Root and Crown Rot Casual
Agents in Sistan Province, Journal of Pistachio Science and Technology, 1(2): 74-92.
Fillion, M., Starnaud, M. & Jabaji-hare, H. (2003) Quantification of Fusarium solani f.sp. phaseoli in mycorrhizal
bean plants and surrounding mycorrhizosphere soil using real-time polymerase chain reaction and direct
isolation on selective media. Phytopathology 93: 229-235.
Flowers, T. J. and Dalmond, D. (1992) Protein synthesis in halophytes: the influence of potassium, sodium and
magnesium in vitro. Plant and Soil 146: 153– 161.
Forster, H.J.E. Adaskaveg, D.H. Kim, and Stanghellini. M.E. (1998) Effect of phosphite on tomato and pepper
plants and on susceptibility of pepper to Phytophthora root and crown rot in hydroponic culture. Plant Disease,.
82:1165-1170.
Gaikwad, A. P. and Karkeli, M. S. (1994) Comparative efficacy of three fungicides for control of powdery mildew
in grapes. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities. 1994, 19: 2, 214-215.
Garcia, A., Rizzo, C.A., UD-Din, J., Bartos, S.L., Senadhira, D., Flowers, T.J. and Yeo. A.R. (1997) Sodium and
Potassium transport to the xylem are inherited independently in rice, and the mechanisms of sodium: potassium
selectivity differs between rice and wheat. Plant Cell and Environ. 20: 1167-1174.
Ghazi.A.K., McMichael, B., and Zak.J. (2004) Field response of wheat to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and
drought stress.14:263-269.
Gholamnejad, J., Etebarian, H. R. & Sahebani, N. (2010) Biological control of apple blue mold with Candida
membranifaciens and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. African Journal of Food Science. 4: 001-007.
Gholamnezhad, J. (2019) Effect of plant extracts on activity of some defense enzymes of apple fruit in interaction
with Botrytis cinerea. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 17(0): 1-10.
Gholamnezhad, J., Sanjarian F., Mohammadi goltapeh E., Safaei N. and Razavi Kh. (2016) Study of defense genes
expression profile pattern of wheat in response to infection by Mycosphaerella graminicola, Iranian Journal of
Science and Technology. 8(30): 43-55.
Gholamnezhad, J., Sanjarian, F., Mohammadi goltapeh, E., Safaei, N. and Razavi Kh. (2014) The evaluation of
salicylic acid effect on septorios disease by Mycospharella graminicola, Research in Plant Pathology. 2(2):35-
46.
Haddad, R., Morris, K. and Buchanan-Wollaston, V. (2004) Expression analysis of genes related to oxidative
protection during senescence in Brassica napus. Iranian Journal of Biotechnology, 2: 269-278.
Jeffries, P., Gianinazzi, S., Perotto, S., Turnau, K. and Barea, J.M. (2003) The contribution of arbuscular
mycorrhizal fungi in sustainable maintenance of plant health and soil fertility. Boilogy and Fertility of Soil.
37: 1-16.
Kamble, S.R., Navale A.M. and Sonawane. R.B. (2009) Response of mango seedlings to VA-mycorrhizal
inoculation. International Journal of Plant Protection, 2(2): 161-164.
Krantev, A., Yordanova, R., Janda, T., Szalai, G. and Popova, L. (2008) Treatment with salicylic acid decreases
the effect of cadmium on photosynthesis in maize plants. Journal of Plant Physiology, 165: 920–931.
Liang, Y. C. Wong, J. W. C. and Long, W. (2005) Silicon-mediated enhancement of cadmium tolerance in maize
(Zea mays L.) grown in cadmium contaminated soil. Chemosphere. 58: 475-483.
Lovatt, C.J. (1999) Timing citrus and avocado foliar nutrient applications to increase fruit set and size.
HortTechnology, 9:607-612.
Mahaveer, P.S., and Alok, A. (2000) Enhanced growth and productivity following inoculation with indigenous
AM fungi in four varieties of onion (Allium cepa L.) in an alfisol. Biological Agriculture and Horticulture,18:
1-14.
Marschner H., (1995) Mineral Nutrition of Plants, Ed 2. Academic Press, Boston.
Menzies, J. G. and Belanger. R. R. (1996) Recent advances in cultural management of diseases of greenhouse
crops. Plant Pathology, 18: 186-193.
Morandi, D. (1996) Occurrence of phytoalexins and phenolic compounds in endomycorrhizal interactions and
their potential role in biological control. Plant and Soil, 185: 241-251.
Mostajeran, A., and Rahimi-Eichi, V. (2009) Effects of drought stress on growth and yield of rice Oryza sativa L.)
Cultivars and accumulation of proline and soluble sugars in sheath and blades of their different ages leaves.
American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences, 5(2). 264-272.
Mozzaffari, V. and M. J. Malakouti. (2006) An investigation of some causes of die-back disorder of pistachio trees
and its control through balanced fertilization in Iran. Acta Horticulture, 22: 301-305.
Oliver, A.J., Smith, S.E., Nicholas, D.J, D., Wallace, W., and Smith, F.A. (1983) Activity of nitrate reductase in
Trifolium subterranum: effects of mycorrhizal infection and phosphate nutrition, New phytologist.94:63-79.
Ortas, I. (2008). Field trials on mycorrhizal inoculation in the eastern Mediterranean Horticultural region. In: F.
Feldman., Kapulnik and j. Barr (eds). Mycorrhiza works Hannorer, Germany.
Patil, A. O., Padule, D. N., Boramanikar, P. K. (1993) Chemical control of powdery mildew of grape with new
fungicides. Maharashtra Journal of Horticulture. 7: 2, 13-16.
Rabie, G.H., and Almadini, A.M. (2005) Role of bioinoculants in development of salt-tolerance of Vicia faba
plants under salinity stress. African Journal of Biotecnology. 4(3): 210-219.
Reise, E. M., R. J. Cook, and McNeal, B. L. (1983). Elevated pH and associated reduced trace-nutrient availability
as factors contributing to take-all of wheat upon soilliming. Phytopathology. 73(3):411-413.
Robert M.A. (2001) Water relation, drough and vesicular- arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. Mycorrhiza. 11:3-
42
Ruiz-Lozano, J.M., Azcon, R. and Gomes, M. (1996). Alleviation of salt stress by arbuscular mycorrhizal Glomus
species in Lactuca sativa plants. Physiologia Plantarum. 98(4): 767-772.
Saravanan, V.S., Madhaiyan, M. and Thangaraju, M. (2007) Solubilization of zinc compounds by the diazotrophic,
plant growth promoting bacterium (Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus). Chemosphere, 66(9): 1794-1798.
Shamshiri, M.H. and Fattahi, H. (2014) Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on Photosystem II Activity of
Three Pistachio Rootstocks under Salt Stress as Probed. Russian Journal of Plant Physiology, 63(1): 101–110.
Shamsi, H., Saberi Riseh, R., Alaei, H., Khodaygan, P., Akhgar, A. (2019). The effect of some plant probiotic
bacteria isolated from salty and dry areas in control of pistachio gummosis caused by Phytophthora drechsleri
under in vitro condition. Biological control of pests and plant diseases, 7(2): 65-82.
Sheibani, A. (1994) Pistachio production in Iran. First International Symposium on Pistachio Nut, Adana, Turkey.
Teviotdale, B., Michalides, T. and Pscheidt, J. (2002). Compendium of nut crop diseases in temperate zones. The
American Phytopathological Society.
Tommasi, S. (2008). Molecular and in silico analysis of BRCA1 and BRCA2 variants. Mutation Research, 644:
64–70.
Turnau, K., Ryszka, P., Gianinazzi-Pearson V. and van Tuinen D. (2001) Identification of arbuscular
mycorrhizal fungi in soils and roots of plants colonizing zinc wastes in southern Poland. Mycorrhiza, 10:169–
174.
Wang, J. W., Zheng, L. P., Wu, J. Y. and Tan, R. Y. (2006). Involvement of nitric oxide in oxidative burst,
phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activation and Taxol production induced by low-energy ultrasound in Taxus
yunnanensis cell suspension cultures. Nitric Oxide, 15: 351-358.
Weller, D.M. (1998). Biological control of soil-borne plant pathogens in the rhizosphere with bacteria. Annual
Review of Phytopathology 29: 379-407.
Wu, Q.S. and Zou. Y.N. (2009). Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis improves growth and root nutrient status of
citrus subjected to salt stress. Science Asia, 35: 388–391.
Youpensuk, S., S. Lordkaew and Rerkasem. B. (2009). Genotypic variation in responses of Citrus spp. to
arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Journal of Agricultural Science, 1(1) p59.
Yuncai, H. and Schmidhalter, U. (2005). Drought and salinity: A comparison of their effects on mineral nutrition
of plants. Plant Nutrition. 168: 541–549.