نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجو مقطع کارشناسی ارشد گروه زیست‌شناسی، دانشکده علوم پایه، دانشگاه گلستان، استان گلستان

2 استادیار گروه زیست‌شناسی، دانشکده علوم پایه، دانشگاه گلستان، استان گلستان

3 استادیار پژوهشگاه ملی اقیانوس‌شناسی و علوم جوی، تهران

چکیده

در این پژوهش دوریختی جنسی در شکل پیش‌پنجه پاهای انبرکی اول و دوم و انشعاب خارجی پای دمی سوم گونه Parhyale darvishi (Momtazi & Maghsoudlou, 2016)  بر اساس تکنیک‌های ریخت‌سنجی هندسی بررسی شد. 100 نمونه نر و 50 نمونه ماده مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. تصاویر میکروسکپی از اندام‌های مورد مطالعه تهیه شد و داده‌های کارتزین هم‌ساخت (در مفهوم ریاضی آن) بر اساس نیم‌لندمارک‌های حاشیه‌های اندام‌ها استخراج شد و با لغزش نیم‌لندمارک‌ها بر اساس کم‌ترین انرژی خمش تراز گردید. معنی‌داری جدایی جنسیت‌ها با آزمون آنالیز واریانس چندمتغیره (MANOVA)، تحلیل ممیزی خطی (LDA)همراه با روش اعتبار سنجی متقابل و تحلیل خوشه‌ای با استفاده از روش Wardمورد آزمون قرار گرفت. برای به تصویر درآوردن تغییرات وابسته به جنسیت در شکل (ریخت‌شناسی) اندام‌های مورد مطالعه در قالب چهارچوب‌های تغییر شکل، آزمون رگرسیون چندمتغیره (Multivariate Regression) روی مولفه‌های شکلی (Partial Warps & The Uniform Components) انجام شد. جدایی جنسیت‌ها با هر سه آزمون برای سه اندام مورد مطالعه معنی‌دار بود (F>17.15, p <0.0001). چهارچوب‌های رگرسیون تغییر شکل در جنس‌های نر و ماده برای پای انبرکی اول نشان داد؛ پای انبرکی جنس ماده نسبت طول به عرض کمتری دارد. پای انبرکی دوم در افراد ماده کشیده‌تر و در افراد نر دایره‌مانند‌تر است. شکل پای دمی سوم در افراد نر کشیده‌تر و انتهای جلویی دارای گوشه‌های گرد شده است. پاهای انبرکی اول و دوم به همراه پای دمی سوم در گونه P. darvishi دارای دوریختی جنسی هستند. توصیف دقیق این دوریختی با توجه به اهمیت این ساختارها در تاکسونومی این گونه امکان بررسی دقیق‌تر گونه و همچنین شناسایی گونه بر اساس افراد ماده را فراهم می‌کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Sexual dimorphism of gnathopods 1 and 2 and uropod 3’ shapes in Parhyale darvishi (Momtazi and Maghsoudlou, 2016) based on geometric morphometric methods

نویسندگان [English]

  • Yganeh Layeghi 1
  • Ali Akbar Bagherian Yazdi 2
  • Farzaneh Momtazi 3

1 Master student of Biology Department, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Golestan University, Golestan Province

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Biology, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Golestan University, Golestan Province

3 Assistant Professor National Institute of Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences, Tehran

چکیده [English]

Sexual dimorphism of gnathopods 1 and 2 and uropod 3’ shapes in Parhyale darvishi (Momtazi and Maghsoudlou, 2016) were investigated by geometric morphometrics. A total 50 males and 50 females were experimented. Anatomical aspects of gnathopods and uropods were photographed and cartesian coordinate (semilandmarks of organs' margin) aligned by semilandmark sliding based on minimum bending energy. Statistical significance of sexual dimorphism was tested by multivariate analysis of variances; linear discriminant analysis and clustering analysis (ward method). Multivariate regression analysis based on partial warps and uniform components was used to depicting shape variations related to sex [1]in studied anatomical parts in the form of deformation frames. The results show all three anatomical parts was significantly different shape in male and females (F>17.15, p < 0.0001). The deformation regression frameworks of first gnathopod show that the ratio of length to width in females are less than males. The second gnathopod has an oval shape in females instead of circular form in males. The shape of third uropod in males is more extended and bearing subacute angles. Based on present studies, the accurate description of sexual dimorphism specially in taxonomic characters provide ability for identification based on females and detail study of species.



 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Sexual dimorphism
  • Parhyale darvishi
  • Hyalidae
  • Semilandmark
  • Geometric morphometrics

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