بررسی میزان تحمل گیاه خرفه (Portulaca oleracea L.) به تنش کروم بر اساس رشد، شاخص های فتوسنتز و میزان فعالیت آنزیم های آنتی اکسیدان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه زیست شناسی، دانشکده علوم، دانشگاه پیام نور، تهران، ایران

2 عضو هیئت علمی گروه کشاورزی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه پیام نور مشهد، مشهد، ایران

3 مدرس مدعو، دانشگاه پیام نور مشهد، ایران

4 دانشجوی دکتری شیمی و حاصلخیزی خاک، دانشگاه ارومیه و مدرس مدعو دانشگاه پیام نور مشهد، مشهد، ایران

چکیده

به منظور بررسی اثرات تنش کروم بر رشد، شاخص‌های فتوسنتز و میزان فعالیت آنزیم‌هایآنتی اکسیدانگیاه خرفه (Portulaca oleracea L.)، آزمایشی در گلخانه تحقیقاتی، در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی با چهار سطح کروم (25، 50، 75 و 100 پی‌پی‌ام) انجام شد. همچنین میزان +6Cr در خاک، ریشه و اندام‌هوایی در سطوح مختلف تنش سنجش شد. با افزایش میزان کروم، مقدار آن در اندام‌هوایی و ریشه به‌طور معنی‌‌داری افزایش یافت. انباشت کروم در ریشه بیش‌تر از اندام‌هوایی بود. هدایت روزنه‌ای، کلروفیل‌a، کاروتنوئید، تعرق و کارایی فتوسیستم II با افزایش میزان کروم کاهش یافت. هر چند، میزان تثبیت دی اکسید کربن، کارایی مصرف آب، رشد، ضریب ثبات کلروفیل و میزان کلروفیل b و کل در غلظت 100 پی‌پی‌ام به طور معنی‌داری بیشتر از غلظت 75 پی‌پی‌ام بود. میزان فعالیت آنزیم‌های کاتالاز و پراکسیداز با افزایش میزان کروم روند افزایشی نشان داد. بنابراین، احتمالا کروم در غلظت‌های پایین، سبب کاهش کارایی فتوسنتز، تولید گونه‌های اکسیژن فعال و در نتیجه کاهش رشد شده است، ولی در سطوح بالاتر (100پی‌پی‌ام)، خرفه توانسته است با افزایش فعالیت آنزیم‌های آنتی اکسیدان تا حدودی اثرات تخریبی را کاهش دهد. 

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Cr stress tolerance in Portulaca oleracea L. based on growth, photosynthesis indexs and the activity of antioxidant enzymes

نویسندگان [English]

  • raheleh rahbarian 1
  • Elham Azizi 2
  • assieh Behdad 3
  • Atena Mirbolook 4

1 Department of biology, Faculty of science, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of agronomy, Faculty of agriculture, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran

3 Ph D student in plant physiology, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran

4 Ph D student in soil chemistry, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran

چکیده [English]

 
In order to investigate effects of Cr stress on growth, photosynthetic indexs and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in Portulaca oleracea L.(Purslane), an experiment in the greenhouse of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, was done in a completely randomized design with three replications of five levels (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 ppm). The amount of Cr+6 in the soil, root and shoot at different levels of stress were measured. By increasing the chromium content in shoot and root were significantly increased. Chromium accumulation at root was more than shoot. Stomatal conductance, chlorophyll a, carotenoids, transpiration and efficiency of photosystem II decreased with increasing the amount of Cr. However, the Co2 assimilation, water use efficiency, growth, coefficient stability index (CSI) and chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll concentration in 100 ppm was significantly higher than 75 ppm. Also, the activity of catalase and peroxidase increased by increasing the amount of Cr+6. Based on the results, chromium in low concentrations possibly effected on biosynthesis of photosynthetic pigments and caused disorder of photosynthetic electron transport, decreased photosynthetic efficiency, thereby reduced the production of reactive oxygen species and growth. But at higher levels of chromium (100 ppm), purslane by activating defense mechanisms such as increasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes and prevent a sharp decline in total proteins could reduce somewhat  the damage and maintained the water use efficiency. The purslane is likely to be as tolerant plants of chromium and it was effective in refining the contaminated soils with this heavy metal.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • chlorophyll
  • Heavy metal
  • peroxidase
  • photosystem II efficiency
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