ارزیابی و مقایسه ترکیبات فنلی و فعالیت آنتی‌اکسیدانی عصاره اتانولی- آبی و متانولی پوست نارنج

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه بهداشت و کنترل کیفی مواد غذایی دانشکده دامپزشکی دانشگاه ارومیه ایران

2 گروه بهداشت و کنترل کیفی مواد غذایی، دانشکده دامپزشکی، دانشگاه ارومیه

3 بهداشت و کنترل کیفی مواد غذایی، دانشکده دامپزشکی، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران

4 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد بهداشت و کنترل کیفی مواد غذایی، دانشکده دامپزشکی، دانشگاه ارومیه

چکیده

واکنش‌های اکسیداسیون باتولید رادیکال‌های آزاد سلامت انسان را به مخاطره انداخته و همچنین باعث کاهش کیفیت حسی و تغذیه‌ای غذا می‌شوند. تلاش‌هایی برای یافتن آنتی‌اکسیدان‌های طبیعی و موثر گیاهی صورت می­پذیرد. در این مطالعه ارزیابی میزان فنل تام و فعالیت آنتی‌اکسیدانی عصاره اتانولی-آبی و متانولی پوست میوه نارنج و مقایسه با آنتی‌اکسیدان مصنوعی بوتیل هیدروکسی تولوئن صورت گرفت. میزان ترکیبات فنلی به روش فولین-سیوکالتو و فعالیت آنتی‌اکسیدانی با سه آزمون قدرت احیاکنندگی، مهار DPPHو ABTSارزیابی شد.محتوایفنلی برای عصاره اتانولی و متانولی به ترتیب0/82±59/38 و 50/0±96/51 میلی‌گرم گالیک اسید بر گرم عصاره اندازه گیری شد. در آزمون درصد بازدارندگی رادیکال آزاد، عصاره‌ها اثر مهاری قابل‌توجهی نشان دادند ولی در آزمون ABTSاثر عصاره متانولی بیشتر از اتانولی بود.یافته‌ها نشان داد که هر دو نوع عصاره فعالیت آنتی‌اکسیدانی نسبتاً مناسبی داشته و به‌عنوان یک منبع بالقوه طبیعی در صنایع غذایی و داروئی پیشنهاد می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation and comparison of total phenolic and antioxidant activity of sour orange (Citrus aurantium) hydroethanolic and methanolic peel extract

نویسندگان [English]

  • Tooraj Mehdizadeh 1
  • Hossein Tajik 2
  • mahsa mayeli 3
  • fatemeh esmaili 4

1 Department of food hygiene & quality control, faculty of veterinary medicine, urmia university

2 Department of Food hygiene and Quality control, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Iran

3 Food hygiene and Quality control, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, urmia, Iran.

4 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد بهداشت و کنترل کیفی مواد غذایی، دانشکده دامپزشکی، دانشگاه ارومیه

چکیده [English]

Oxidation reactions venture human health due to the production of free radicals. Additionally, by creating some compounds, reduce sensory and nutritional quality of food. Recently, performed many attempts to find natural and safe antioxidants from different plant sources. In this study, total phenolic and antioxidant activity of sour orange (Citrus aurantium) hydroethanolic and methanolic peel extract in compare with BHT examined. Total phenolic content of hydro-ethanolic and methanolic peel extract was 59.38±0.82 and 50.96±0.51 mg Gallic acid/g extract, respectively. In testing percent of inhibition of free radicals (DPPH and ABTS), the extracts showed a significant inhibitory effect but there is a significant difference, between hydro-ethanolic and methanolic extract in ABTS test. Both extract also showed reducing effect. Our findings showed that orange peel extract had relatively good antioxidant activity in compare to standard antioxidant (BHT), so it has proposed as a potential source of natural antioxidants in food and pharmaceutical industries.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Fruit peel
  • Natural extract
  • Oxidation
  • Total phenol
Akoh, C. C. (2017). Food lipids: chemistry, nutrition, and biotechnology. 3th edn.,CRC press.322 Pp. London.

Akowuah, G. A., Ismail, Z., Norhayati, I. and Sadikun, A. (2005). The effects of different extraction solvents of varying polarities on polyphenols of Orthosiphon stamineus and evaluation of the free radical-scavenging activity. Food Chemistry. 93: 311-317.

Bendaoud, H., Bouajila, J., Rhouma, A., Savagnac, A. and Romdhane, M. (2009). GC/MS analysis and antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of essential oil of Eucalyptus radiata. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 89: 1292-1297.

Boeing, J. S., Barizão, É. O., e Silva, B. C., Montanher, P. F., de Cinque Almeida, V. and Visentainer, J. V. (2014). Evaluation of solvent effect on the extraction of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacities from the berries: application of principal component analysis. Chemistry Central Journal. 8: 1-9.

Burits, M. and Bucar, F. (2000). Antioxidant activity of Nigella sativa essential oil. Phytotherapy Research. 14: 323-328.

Chatterjee, M., Saluja, R., Kanneganti, S., Chinta, S. and Dikshit, M. (2006). Biochemical and molecular evaluation of neutrophil NOS in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Cellular and molecular biology (Noisy-le-Grand, France). 53: 84-93.

Erkan, N., Ayranci, G. and Ayranci, E. (2008). Antioxidant activities of rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis L.) extract, blackseed (Nigella sativa L.) essential oil, carnosic acid, rosmarinic acid and sesamol. Food Chemistry. 110: 76-82.

Ga, J. and Kaviyarasana, V. (2011). Antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of Trametes gibbosa (Pers.) Fr. Journal of Pharmacy Research. 4: 3939-3942.

Gliszczyńska-Świgło, A. (2006). Antioxidant activity of water soluble vitamins in the TEAC (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) and the FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) assays. Food Chemistry. 96: 131-136.

Hayek, S. A., Gyawali, R. and Ibrahim, S. A. (2013). Antimicrobial natural products. Microbial pathogens and strategies for combating them: Science, technology and education. 2: 91.

He, D., Shan, Y., Wu, Y., Liu, G., Chen, B. and Yao, S. (2011). Simultaneous determination of flavanones, hydroxycinnamic acids and alkaloids in citrus fruits by HPLC-DAD–ESI/MS. Food chemistry. 127: 880-885.

Ibrahim, M. H., Jaafar, H. Z., Rahmat, A. and Rahman, Z. A. (2011). Effects of nitrogen fertilization on synthesis of primary and secondary metabolites in three varieties of kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Blume). International journal of molecular sciences. 12: 5238-5254.

Kang, H., Chawla, S., JO, C., Kwon, J. and Byun, M. (2006). Studies on the development of functional powder from citrus peel. Bioresource Technology. 97: 614-620.

Khan, M. K., Abert-Vian, M., Fabiano-Tixier, A.-S., Dangles, O. and Chemat, F. (2010). Ultrasound-assisted extraction of polyphenols (flavanone glycosides) from orange (Citrus sinensis L.) peel. Food Chemistry. 119: 851-858.

Kil, H. Y., Seong, E. S., Ghimire, B. K., Chung, I.-M., Kwon, S. S., Goh, E. J., Heo, K., Kim, M. J., Lim, J. D. and Lee, D. (2009). Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of crude sorghum extract. Food Chemistry. 115: 1234-1239.

Kulshreshtha, M., Goswami, M., Rao, C., Ashwlayan, V. and Yadav, S. (2011). Estimation of antioxidant potential of aqueous extract of Ficus bengalensis leaf on gastric ulcer. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research. 9: 122-6.

Lagha-Benamrouche, S. and Madani. K. (2013). Phenolic contents and antioxidant activity of orange varieties (Citrus sinensis L. and Citrus aurantium L.) cultivated in Algeria: Peels and leaves. Industrial Crops and Products. 50: 723-730.

Lario, Y., Sendra, E., Garcı́, J., Fuentes, C., Sayas-Barberá, E., Fernández-López, J. and Pérez-Alvarez, J. (2004). Preparation of high dietary fiber powder from lemon juice by-products. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies. 5: 113-117.

Liu, X., Dong, M., Chen, X., Jiang, M., LV, X. and Yan, G. (2007). Antioxidant activity and phenolics of an endophytic Xylaria sp. from Ginkgo biloba. Food chemistry. 105: 548-554.

Manach, C., scalbert, A., morand, C., rémésy, C. and jiménez, L. (2004). Polyphenols: food sources and bioavailability. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 79: 727-747.

Mandalari, G., bennett, R. N., bisignano, G., saija, A., dugo, G., lo curto, R. B., faulds, C. B. and waldron, K. W. (2006). Characterization of flavonoids and pectins from bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso) peel, a major byproduct of essential oil extraction. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. 54: 197-203.

Marinova, D., ribarova, F. and atanassova, M. (2005). Total phenolics and total flavonoids in Bulgarian fruits and vegetables. Journal of the university of chemical technology and metallurgy. 40: 255-260.

Moraes, T. M., kushima, H., moleiro, F. C., santos, R. C., rocha, L. R. M., marques, M. O., vilegas, W. and hiruma-lima, C. A. (2009). Effects of limonene and essential oil from Citrus aurantium on gastric mucosa: role of prostaglandins and gastric mucus secretion. Chemico-Biological Interactions. 180: 499-505.

Naczk, M. and Shahidi, F. (2004). Extraction and analysis of phenolics in food. Journal of Chromatography A. 1054: 95-111.

Naik, G., Priyadarsini, K. and Mohan, H. (2006). Free radical scavenging reactions and phytochemical analysis of triphala, an ayurvedic formulation. Current Science. 90:1100-5.

Ordoñez, A. A. L., Gomez, J. D., Vattuone, M. A. and Lsla, M. I. (2006). Antioxidant activities of Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz extracts. Food Chemistry. 97: 452-458.

Ouedrhiri, W., Bouhdid, S., Balouiri, M., Lalami, A., Moja, S., Chahdi, F. and Greche, H. (2015). Chemical composition of Citrus aurantium L. leaves and zest essential oils, their antioxidant, antibacterial single and combined effects. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research. 7: 78-84.

Pacher, P., Beckman, J. S. and Liaudet, L. (2007). Nitric oxide and peroxynitrite in health and disease. Physiological reviews. 87: 315-424.

Raikos, V. (2017). Natural Antioxidants for Food Applications: Challenges and Recent Developments. EC Nutrition. 8: 33-34.

Rajendran, P., Nandakumar, N., Rengarajan, T., Palaniswami, R., Gnanadhas, E. N., Lakshminarasaiah, U. and Nishigaki, I. (2014). Antioxidants and human diseases. Clinica chimica acta. 436: 332-347.

Re, R., Pellegrini, N., Proteggente, A., Pannala, A., Yang, M. and Rice-Evans, C. (1999). Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Free Radical Biology & Medicine. 26: 1231-7.

Rouseff, R. and Perez-Cacho, P. R. (2007). Citrus flavour. Flavours and Fragrances. 1nd edition, Springer. Pp. 117-134.

Sarrou, E., Chatzopoulou, P., Dimassi-Theriou, K. and Therios, I. (2013). Volatile constituents and antioxidant activity of peel, flowers and leaf oils of Citrus aurantium L. growing in Greece. Molecules. 18: 10639-10647.

Schaich, K. M., Tian, X. and Xie, J. (2015). Hurdles and pitfalls in measuring antioxidant efficacy: a critical evaluation of ABTS, DPPH, and ORAC assays. Journal of functional foods. 14: 111-125.

Shahidi, F. and Ambigaipalan, P. (2015). Phenolics and polyphenolics in foods, beverages and spices: Antioxidant activity and health effects–A review. Journal of functional food.18: 820-897.

Shukla, S., Mehta, A., Bajpai, V. K. and Shukla, S. (2009). In vitro antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of ethanolic leaf extract of Stevia rebaudiana Bert. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 47: 2338-2343.

Singh, R., Chidambara Murthy, K. and Jayaprakasha, G. (2002). Studies on the antioxidant activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel and seed extracts using in vitro models. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. 50: 81-86.

Soares, A. A., De Souza, C. G. M., Daniel, F. M., Ferrari, G. P., Da Costa, S. M. G. and Peralta, R. M. (2009) .Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of Agaricus brasiliensis (Agaricus blazei Murril) in two stages of maturity. Food chemistry. 112: 775-781.

Tawaha, K., Alali, F. Q., Gharaibeh, M., Mohammad, M. and El-Elimat, T. (2007). Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of selected Jordanian plant species. Food Chemistry. 104: 1372-1378.

Trabelsi, D., Ammar, A., Bouabdallah, F. and Zagrouba, F. (2014). Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oils and. methanolic extracts of Tunisian Citrus aurantium L. L. Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology. 8: 18-27.

Valko, M., Rhodes, C., Moncol, J., Izakovic, M. and Mazur, M. (2006). Free radicals, metals and antioxidants in oxidative stress-induced cancer. Chemico-biological interactions. 160: 1-40.

Verzelloni, E., Tagliazucchi, D. and Conte, A. (2007). Relationship between the antioxidant properties and the phenolic and flavonoid content in traditional balsamic vinegar. Food Chemistry. 105: 564-571.

Weidinger, A. and d Kozlov, A. V. (2015). Biological activities of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species: oxidative stress versus signal transduction. Biomolecules.5: 472-484.

Yildirim, A., Mavi, A. and Kara, A. A. (2001a). Determination of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Rumex crispus L. extracts. J Agric Food Chem. 49: 4083-9.

Yildirim, A., Mavi, A. and Kara, A. A. (2001b). Determination of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Rumex crispus L. extracts. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. 49:4083-4089.

Zhang, Y. J., Gan, R. Y., Li, S., Zhou, Y., Li, A. N., Xu, D. P. and Li, H. B. (2015). Antioxidant phytochemicals for the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases. Molecules. 20: 21138-21156.

Zia-Ur-Rehman. (2006). Citrus peel extract-A natural source of antioxidant. Food Chemistry. 99: 450-454.