مقایسه روش‌های مختلف تانن زدایی برگ گردوی ایرانی Junglans regia L.)) و اثر آنها بر ترکیب شیمیایی و فراسنجه‌های تخمیری در شرایط برون تنی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته گروه علوم دامی، واحد مشهد، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، مشهد، ایران

2 عضو هیات علمی/ گروه علوم دامی، واحد مشهد، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، مشهد، ایران

چکیده

هدف از انجام این آزمایش، تعیین ترکیبات شیمیایی و بررسی روش­های تانن­زدایی در برگ گردوی ایرانی (Junglans regia L.) و تخمین فراسنجه­های تخمیری آن­ها به­روش تولید گاز بود. روش­های مذکور شامل روش­های خیساندن، جوشاندن، پرکولاسیون و سوکسله بودند. نتایج نشان­داد که کاهش مقدار تانن در تمامی روش­های فرآوری نسبت به تیمار شاهد معنی­دار بود. همچنین روش خیساندن سبب افزایش معنی­دار پروتئین خام، انرژی خام، الیاف نامحلول در شوینده خنثی و الیاف نامحلول در شوینده اسیدی نسبت به سایر تیمارها شد. فرآوری به­روش خیساندن نسبت به سایر تیمارها سبب افزایش معنی­دار تولید گاز تجمعی و تولید گاز از بخش نامحلول (b) و افزایش غیرمعنی­دار نرخ تولید گاز (c)، انرژی قابل متابولیسم و هضم­پذیری ماده آلی شد (05/0<p). لذا با توجه به نتایج به­دست آمده، روش خیساندن و استفاده از آب­مقطر نسبت به اتانول، روش مناسبی جهت استخراج تانن از برگ گردو و مصرف آن در خوراک نشخوارکنندگان می­باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparison of different methods of tannin extraction from the leaves of Iranian walnut (Juglans regia L.) and their effects on chemical composition and fermentative parameters in vitro

نویسندگان [English]

  • behzad amir 1
  • saeed sobhani rad 2

چکیده [English]

The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition and evaluation of extraction methods of tannin from leaves of Iranian walnut (Juglans regia L.) and estimation of fermentative parameters by gas production technique. Mentioned methods include maceration method, boiling method, percolation method, and Soxhlet method. The results showed that the number of tannins in all the processing methods was reduced significantly compared to the control treatment (p<0.05). Crude protein, crude energy, natural detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber were also increased to compare to other treatments, significantly (p<0.05). Soaking Process compared to other treatments increased significantly cumulative gas production, the fermentable fraction (b) of gas production and also increased insignificantly the parameters of rate (c) of gas production, metabolizable energy, and digestibility of organic matter. Therefore, by comparing the chemical composition and fermentative characteristics of the processed products, it can be concluded maceration method and use distilled water compared to ethanol, is a suitable method for the extraction of tannin and its use in ruminants' feedstuff.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • walnut
  • tannin removal methods
  • gas production
  • fermentation characteristics

Alipour, D. and Rouzbehan Y. )2007(. Effect of ensiling grape pomace and addition of polyethylene glycol on in vitro gas production and microbial biomass yield. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 137: 138-149.

Alipour, D., Tabatabaei, M. M., Zamani, P., Aliarabi, H. A., Saki, A. A. and Zamani Z. (2010). Determination of chemical composition and Gas production parameters of Raisin by- product. Journal of Animal Science Research, 4(20): 109-118 (In Persian).

Amaral, J. S., Seabra, R. S., Andrade, P. B., Valentão, P., Pereira, J. A., Ferreres, F. )2004(. Phenolic profile in the quality control of walnut (Juglansregia L.) leaves. Food Chemistry, 88:373-379. 

AOAC. )2005(. Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International, 18th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arligton, VA.

Asghari, J. and Mazaheritehrani, M. (2010). Extraction of tannin from Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. and trimyristin from Myristica fragrans Houtt by using microwave irradiation. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 26 (2): 185-195 (In Persian).

Blumenthal, M., Goldberg, A., Brinckmann, J. )2000(. Herbal Medicine: Expanded Commission E Monographs. Copyright American Botanical Council. Publ. by Integrative Medicine Communications, 1029 Chestnut Street, Newton, MA 02464, 401-403.

Blummel, M. K. and Orskov, E. )1993(. Comparison of in vitro gas production and nylon bag degradability of roughages in predicting feed intake in cattle. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 40:109-119.

Frutos, P., Hervás, G., Giráldez, F. J. and Mantecón, A. R. )2004(. Tannins and ruminant nutrition. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, 2: 191–202.

Hagerman, A. E. and Butler, L. G. )1978(. Proteian precipitation methods for the quantitative determination of tannin. Journal of Agricultural and Food chemistry, 26: 809-812.

Handa, S. S. and Kapoor, V. K. )2003(. Textbook of Pharmacognosy. 2nd Edn.,VallabhPrakshan, Delhi.

Kamalak, A., Canbolat, O., Ozay, O. and Akbas, S. )2004(. Nutritive value of oak (Quercus sp.) leaves. Small Ruminent Research. 53: 161-165.

Lamy, E., Pinheiro, C., Rodrigues, L., Capela-Silva, F., Lopes, O. S., Moreira, P., Tavares, S. and Gaspar, R. (2016). Determinants of tannin-rich food and beverage consumption: oral perception vs. psychosocial aspects. In Tannins: Biochemistry, Food Sources and Nutritional Properties (29-58). NY: Nova Publishers.

Makkar, H. )2005(. In vitro gas methods for evaluation of feeds containing phytochemicals. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 123: 291-302.

Makkar, H. P. S., Blummel, M. and Becker, K. )1995(. Formation of complexes between polyvinyl pyrrolidones or polyethylene glycols and tannins, and their implication in gas production and truedigestibility in in vitro techniques. British Journal of Nutrition, 73: 897-913.

Maldar, S.M., Roozbehan, Y., Alipour, D. (2010). The effect of adaptation to oak leaves on digestibility (in vitro) and ruminal parameters in alamout goat. Iranian Journal of Animal Science, 41: 243-252 (In Persian).

McSweeney, C. S., Palmer, B., McNeill, D. M. and Krause, D. O. )2001(. Microbial interactions with tannins: Nutritional consequences for ruminants. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 91: 83–93.

Menke, K. H. and Steingass, H. )1988(. Estimation of the energetic feed value obtained from chemical analysis and in vitro gas production using rumen fluid. Animal research and development, 28: 6-55.

Menke, K.H., Raab, L., Salewski, A., Steingass, H., Fritz, D. and Schneide, W. )1979(. The estimation of the digestibility and metabolizable energy content of ruminant feedstuffs from the gas production when they are incubated with rumen liquor in vitro. Journal of Agricultural Science, 92: 217 -222.

Min, B. R. and Attwood, G.T. )2003(. The effect of condensed tannins on the nutrition and health of ruminants fed fresh temperate forages: a review. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 106: 3-19

Mlambo, V., Sikosana, J. L. N., Mould, F. L., Smith, T., Owen, E. and Mueller-Harvey, I. )2007(. The effectiveness of adapted rumen fluid versus PEG to ferment tannin-containing substrates in vitro. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 136: 128-136.

Mokhtarpour, A., Naserian, A. A., Valizadeh, R., Tahmasbi, A. (2012). Effect of Polyethylene Glycol and Urea Treated Pistachio by-products Silage on Phenolic Compounds, in vitro Gas Production and Holstein Dairy Cow’s Performance. Iranian Journal of Animal Science Research, 4(1): 55-62 (In Persian).

Pansera, M. R., Iob, G. A., Atti-Santos, A. C., Rossato, M., Atti-Serafini, L., Cassel, E. (2004). Extraction of Tannin by Acacia mearnsii with supercritical fluids. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, 47(6): 995-998.

Pereira, J. A., Oliveira, I., Sousa, A., Valentão, P., Andrade, P. B., Ferreira, I. C., Ferreres, F., Bento, A., Seabra, R., Estevinho, L. )2007(. Walnut (Juglans regia L.) leaves: phenolic compounds, antibacterial activity and antioxidant potential of different cultivars. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 45(11): 2287-95.

Pourshafi Zanganeh, H. (1993). Usable oak galls in Kermanshah province. M. Sc. Thesis, Faculty of Natural Resource, University of Tehran, Karaj, 112 Pp (In Persian).

Reed, J. D. )1995(. Nutritional toxicology of tannins and related polyphenols in foage legumes. Journal of Animal Science, 73: 1516–1528.

Robber, J. E., Speedie, M.K., and Tyler, V.E. )1996(. Pharmacognosy and pharmacobiotechnology. williams and wilkins 337 Pp, Baltimore.

SAS Institute Inc. )2004(. SAS/STAT User’s Guide, Version 9.1. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, North Carolina.

Silanikove, N., Gilboa, N., Nir, I., Perevolotsky, A. and Nitsan, Z. )1996(. Effect of daily supplementation of polyethylene glycol on intake and digestion of tannin containing leaves (Quercuscalliprinos, Pistacialentiscus,andCeratoniasiliqua) by goats. Journal of Agricultural and Food chemistry, 44: 199–205.

Singh, B., Sahoo, A., Sharma, R., Bhat, T. K. (2005). Effect of polethylene glycol on gas production parameters and nitrogen disappearance of some tree forages. Animal Feed Science and Technology, vol. 123-124: 351–364.

Tiemann, T. T., Avila, P., Ramírez, G., Lascano, C., Kreuzer, M. and Hess, H. D. )2008(. In vitro ruminal fermentation of tannin ifrous tropical plants: plant specific tannin effects. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 146: 222-241.

Van Soest, P. J., Robertson, J. B. and Lewis, B. A. )1991(. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral-detergent fiber and non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science, 74: 3583-3597.

Vijayakumari, K., Pugalenthi, M. and Vadivel, V. )2007(. Effect of soaking and hydrothermal processing methods on the levels of antinutrients and in vitro protein digestibility of Bauhinia purpurea L. seeds. Food Chemistry, 103: 968-975.

Yildirım, I. and Kutlu, T. (2015). Anticancer Agents: Saponin and Tannin. International Journal of Biological Chemistry, 9: 332-340.

Yousef Elahi, M. and Rouzbehan, Y. )2007(. Characterization of Quercus persica, Quercus infectoria, Quercus libani as ruminant feeds. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 140 (1-2): 78-89.